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The TRIPS Agreement introduced intellectual property rights into the multilateral trading system for the first time and remains the most comprehensive multilateral agreement on intellectual property to date. In 2001, developing countries, concerned about the industrialized countries` insistence on an overly narrow interpretation of TRIPS, launched a round table that resulted in the Doha Declaration. The Doha Declaration is a WTO declaration that clarifies the scope of TRIPS and, for example, states that TRIPS can and should be interpreted with the aim of “promoting access to medicines for all”. The trade-related aspects of intellectual property, commonly known as TRIPS, is a multilateral agreement within the framework of the World Trade Organization (WTO) that entered into force in 1994. It was the first such agreement to treat so-called intellectual property rights (IP), in particular copyrights and patents, as a global trade issue, since the failure of one country to protect the intellectual property of another constitutes a barrier to trade between those countries. However, the definition of IP as a trade issue was to have access to established WTO enforcement mechanisms, which can allow trade sanctions to be applied against countries that do not meet agreed standards. TRIPS was negotiated in the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) from 1986 to 1994. Its inclusion was the culmination of an intensive lobbying program by the United States, supported by the European Union, Japan and other developed countries. Unilateral economic support campaigns under the Generalized System of Preferences and coercion under Section 301 of the Trade Act have played an important role in suppressing competing political positions favoured by developing countries such as Brazil, but also Thailand, India and the Caribbean Basin countries. The U.S.

strategy to link trade policy to intellectual property standards can in turn be attributed to the entrepreneurial spirit of Pfizer`s management in the early 1980s, which mobilized companies in the United States and made the maximization of intellectual property privileges the top priority of U.S. trade policy (Braithwaite and Drahos, 2000, Chapter 7). Notifications – Members` Transparency Toolkit Members exchange information on their intellectual property laws, regulations and practices through communications submitted to the TRIPS Council. .


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