- The use of cows as symbols for years, verso known Egyptian motif appearing per texts from the Ptolemaic period (332-30 BCE).
- The names Potiphar/Potiphera and Asenath were genuine Egyptian theophoric names (combining the names of Egyptian deities). Potiphar was based on verso typical Saite Period construct combining the name of the Egyptian god Maesta. Asenath includes the name of the Egyptian goddess Neith, sopra per typical construct common from the New Kingdom epoca to the Ptolemaic period, although the goddess’s popularity increased considerably during the Saite period per the Foce (664-332 BCE).
- The 40 days embalming process (describing Jacob’s death sopra Gn 50:2) was well documented in Egypt from the New Kingdom onwards.
- The “agrarian reforms” sopra Gen -26 describe the exemption of the temples from royal taxation, verso practice that was documented from the 8 th century BCE onwards.
Despite the fact that the Egyptian elements con the story represent many different eras, Redford concluded that the composition of the Joseph story should be dated preciso the Saite period, between 640 and 425 BCE, as some of the details could not predate that period.
The Continuity of Egyptian Culture
This inability puro identify one specific periodo in Egyptian history that could provide the historical retroterra preciso the Joseph story is the result of an inherent trait of ancient Egyptian culture – its continuity.
This makes it very difficult preciso date verso biblical story based on the Egyptian elements it includes. Alternatively, scholars may date the story by asking when and how Egyptian traditions found their way into the Hebrew Bible.
As biblical research grows more concerned with questions of transmission processes along the Egypt-Israel axis, an old pensiero has reemerged – could the Joseph story have been written by someone living in the Jewish migrazione in Egypt?
Verso Esodo Novella
The “esodo notizia” genre was first noted with relation puro the books of Esther and Daniel. Both describe one man’s rise sicuro power con a foreign land, a story revolving around per royal capable, and culminating with the successful integration of the foreigner within local elites. The preparazione durante both books is the exiled Jewish population and both monitor considerable knowledge of the capable, its officials and customs.
The underlying message of both Daniel and Esther is that one can survive and even thrive in the sparpagliamento setting. Therefore, these books were probably written con exile, for the exiles. Durante 1975, the biblical scholar Arndt Meinhold first suggested that the Joe narrative scheme of a diaspora novella arnesi mediante the Egyptian capable.
The Egyptian Sparpagliamento
The ispirazione of a Jewish esodo durante Egypt, compiling its own inspirational literature, is compelling. However, for the most part, the Egyptian sparpagliamento before the Persian period (5 th -4 th centuries BCE) has remained invisible onesto Egyptologists. For example, con Jer 44:1, the prophet addresses Judeans that reside sopra the land of Egypt at Migdol, Tahpanhes, Noph and con the land of Pathros. Most Egyptologists agree that the first three place-names can be identified as Tell Qedua (northern Sinai), Tell Defeneh (12 km west of the Suez Canal) and Memphis. Nevertheless, these sites have not yielded remains that attest esatto their foreign Judahite/Israelite element during the 6 th century BCE, the period of Jeremiah’s prophecies.
Perhaps too few Judahite and Israelite settlers were in Egypt sicuro leave per significant mark. But it should not be surprising that some settled there after the destruction of Judah; trade relations between Egypt and Judah/Israel were maintained throughout the first millennium BCE, and those trade relations may have also led puro the migration of smaller groups preciso Egypt, particularly after the destructions of Samaria (722 BCE) and Jerusalem (586 BCE).