Organization away from urinary sodium and potassium excretion which have systolic blood pressure level regarding the Diet Methods to End Hypertension Salt Trial

The 2019 National Academy of Science, Engineering and Medicine Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for Sodium (Na + ) and Potassium (K + ) Report concluded there remains insufficient evidence to establish a K + DRI. This study tested the hypothesis that reduced Na + and increased K + excretion will positively associate with lower blood pressure in salt sensitive (SS) and salt resistant (SR) participants in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Sodium Trial (DASH–Sodium). Via the NHLBI BioLINCC we accessed the DASH-Sodium dataset for data on systolic blood pressure (SBP), 24-h urinary Na + and K + excretion at screening (regular patient diet; N = 186, SS N = 222 SR) and post DASH diet (N = 71 SS, N = 119 SR). The relationships between SBP, urinary Na + and K + excretion, and Na + /K + ratio were assessed via linear regression. At screening elevated urinary Na + excretion positively associated with SBP in SS (1 g increase in urinary Na + excretion = +1 0 ± 0.4 mmHg) but not SR participants, and urinary K + excretion of <1 g K + /day was associated with higher SBP in SS and SR participants. Urinary K + excretion ?1 g/day, or a decreases in urinary Na + /K + ratio, was not associated with lower SBP. Post the DASH–sodium diet intervention, SBP was reduced in SS and SR participants. However, no correlation was observed between reduced SBP and urinary K + excretion or the urinary Na + /K + ratio irrespective of the salt sensitivity of blood pressure. Our data support the DRI recommendation not to establish a K + DRI and suggest further evidence is required to support a reduced Na + /K + ratio to lower SBP.

Inclusion

Hypertension, the most famous non-communicable state worldwide, signifies a significant international societal ailment. In accordance with the 2017 American Cardio Relationship (AHA) direction, the fresh frequency out of hypertension among us people is actually estimated to be 46% ; while doing so,

Connection regarding urinary sodium and you may potassium excretion having systolic blood pressure about Diet Solutions to Prevent Blood pressure levels Salt Demo

50% off hypertensive people are projected are salt sensitive and painful (SS) . As indexed from the National Center to have Persistent Problem Reduction and you will Fitness Promotion declaration

90% out-of Western adults consume too much dietary sodium (Na + ), with the common every day application exceeding 3400 milligrams inside adult All of us men, a value almost three times the latest day-after-day practices needed of the AHA as well as the Federal Academy off Science, Technology, and you will Medicine Weight reduction Resource Intakes (DRI) . Due to the fact excessively weight reduction Na + intake, which can push brand new salt awareness regarding hypertension and increase blood pressure level risk, worldwide losing weight Na + consumption is actually a community fitness risk. The latest impression out-of losing weight Na + consumption towards the hypertension could have been examined in multiple diet intervention examples creating research you to less losing weight sodium consumption inside controlled configurations contributes to decrease inside hypertension [6,7,8]. Further, meta-analyses keeps coordinated marriagemindedpeoplemeet dietary Na + limit which have reductions when you look at the blood pressure indicating discover a healthcare benefit in both normotensive and hypertensive individuals no matter brand new sodium sensitiveness off hypertension [nine, 10].

Recent evidence suggests the salt sensitivity of blood pressure may be modulated, in part, by dietary potassium (K + ) intake. Increasing dietary K + intake appears to counteract the effects of dietary Na + intake on increasing blood pressure [11,12,13]. Despite several studies that have documented blood pressure lowering effects of increasing K + intake, the 2019 National Academy of Science, Engineering, and Medicine DRI for sodium and potassium Report did not establish a DRI for K + . This report concluded that more evidence is required to support a DRI of K + with particular reference to a lack of K + dose-response trials limiting the evidence to establish a K + DRI . Several studies have reported that the urinary Na + :K + ratio has a stronger association with blood pressure than Na + or K + independently [14, 15]. Largely based on these data, a urinary Na + to K + molar ratio of <1 has been recommended [16, 17] as a beneficial target to improve long-term blood pressure control. Given the high global dietary Na + intake this would necessitate dietary, or other means, of K + supplementation-for which a DRI has not been established . A leading dietary intervention study was the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension 2 Trial (DASH-Sodium) conducted between 1997 and 2002 . The DASH-Sodium trial was a multicenter, randomized clinical trial that examined the impact of three levels dietary Na + intake in combination with either a control or DASH diet (rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, and reduced in total fat) on blood pressure. This study demonstrated substantial effects of dietary Na + reduction and the DASH diet on reducing blood pressure, with more significant blood pressure lowering effects with the combination of a DASH diet plus dietary Na + reduction than dietary Na + restriction alone in individuals with higher than optimal blood pressure . Given that the DASH diet intervention elevated dietary K + intake by increasing dietary intake of fruits and vegetables in combination with modifying daily dietary Na + intake, examining the potential interaction between dietary Na + and K + intake on blood pressure in the DASH trial will provide valuable insight into the potential influence of dietary K + on blood pressure.